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The mythical founder of the city was a prince of Athens named Androklos, who had to leave his country after the death of his father, King Kodros.According to the legend, he founded Ephesus on the place where the oracle of Delphi became reality ("A fish and a boar will show you the way").During the Peloponnesian War, Ephesus was first allied to Athens but in a later phase, called the Decelean War, or the Ionian War, sided with Sparta, which also had received the support of the Persians.As a result, rule over the cities of Ionia was ceded again to Persia.Pausanias mentions that the temple was built by Ephesus, son of the river god Caystrus, About 650 BC, Ephesus was attacked by the Cimmerians who razed the city, including the temple of Artemis.After the Cimmerians had been driven away, the city was ruled by a series of tyrants. During the Classical Greek era it was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League.The city flourished after it came under the control of the Roman Republic in 129 BC.

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Ephesus did not contribute ships but gave financial support.After the Persians defeated Croesus, the Ionians offered to make peace, but Cyrus insisted that they surrender and become part of the empire.They were defeated by the Persian army commander Harpagos in 547 BC.The ruins of Ephesus are a favourite international and local tourist attraction, partly owing to their easy access from Adnan Menderes Airport or from the cruise ship port of Kuşadası, some 30 km to the South.The area surrounding Ephesus was already inhabited during the Neolithic Age (about 6000 BC), as was revealed by excavations at the nearby höyük (artificial mounds known as tells) of Arvalya and Cukurici.

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